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企业国外参展应注意的知识产权法律问题

[ 李俭 ]——(2016-11-7) / 已阅3360次




企业国外参展应注意的知识产权法律问题
(中英文)
IPR Legal Issue That Enterprise Shall Pay Attention
to While Attending Exhibition Abroad

北京市中银(南京)律师事务所 高级合伙人 李 俭
Beijing Zhongyin (Nanjing) law firm Lawyer: Li Jian

【概要】随着中国企业的产品不断迈出国门,在参与海外各种展览中频频遭遇知识产权问题,如注册商标、专利而遭遇国外企业采取的各种维权手段的尴尬,面临产品被扣留甚至被起诉的不利局面,通过本文的研究旨在提供中国企业的知识产权保护和规范意识,并提出了各种建设性的解决方案。
企业的产品在国外的各种博览会上参展,是企业走出国门、走向世界的重要一步,也是企业直接向国外的客户展示自己产品、品牌和企业的最好机会。通过短短的几天,就可以接触到国外大量的潜在客户,让客户对自己的产品和品牌有个直观、形象的认识,而且有利于双方面对面的交流,有利于双方就此建立直接的联系,加快企业跟国际市场的接轨。
It is an important pace for enterprise to step abroad and towards the world and also a best opportunity for enterprise to directly exhibit their products and brand to foreign customers while attending various kinds of exhibitions abroad.
近年来,国内越来越多的企业通过在参加产品博览会等国外参展的方式推销自己的产品,但在参展的过程中也遇到了很多的法律问题,有的甚至遭遇了参展产品当场被扣押、甚至被起诉的尴尬局面。企业在国外参展一般会遇到以下知识产权方面的法律问题:
In recent years, more and more domestic enterprises market their products by attending products fair abroad, but some of them encounter many legal issues and even face the awkward situation that their products on show were detained on the exhibition spot or even were sued. Generally speaking, enterprises may encounter following legal issues concerning IPR while attending product exhibition abroad.
1.展台设计、广告手册、宣传标语、图片等,如产品说明书、现场演示用软件或背景音乐等,若处理不当容易侵犯当事人的著作权;
1. Design of exhibition booth, brochure of broadcast, advertising slogan, pictures etc, such as product specification, software for live demo or background music etc. If you handle it improperly, you may easily infringe other’s copyright.
2.不当使用他人的注册商标,容易侵犯当事人的商标权,尤其是驰名商标权利;
Improperly use of other’s registered trademark may easily infringe other’s right of trademark, esp. well-known trademark.
3.产品外观设计参加展览的产品一般都是最先进的成果,所以其中很大一部分具备专利性。 这也是企业参展中最容易产生法律问题的地方。
Product of design that attend exhibition usually represents most advanced achievements, and most of which are of patentability. This is the right place that it may easily cause legal problem during exhibition.
一般而言,欧盟在对待展会侵犯知识产权的情况一旦查证属实,会采取以下一些法律手段:
Generally speaking, EU will take following legal measures in case the infringement of IP has been verified during the exhibition.
1、 向涉嫌侵权方发出“警告信”
Send warning letter to a suspect of infringing party.
在德国知识产权纠纷中,警告信是权利人提出诉讼前的要求书,一般由权利人的代理律师起草和发出,权利人将会要求其认为的侵权人停止正在进行的侵权行为,并承诺不再实施侵权行为。
In IP disputes in Germany, warning letter is a statement of requirements before IPR owner lodges a lawsuit which is usually drafted and issued by attorney agent of IPR owner. In the letter, IPR owner will require infringing party to stop infringement act and undertake not to perform infringement no longer.
2、 紧急临时禁令
Urgent temproary injunction
紧急临时禁令程序是法院在紧急情况下发出的临时禁令,以禁止某种行为,从而避免这种行为今后造成的损失。这是知识产权纠纷案中最常见的诉讼程序。
Urgent temporary injunction procedure is a temporary injunction that court issues under emergency circumstances in order to prohibit certain act in order to avoid the loss it may cause in the future. This a most common litigation procedure in IPR disputes.
临时禁令送达时,被告必须立即遵守;如果临时禁令包括扣押命令,原告将扣押产品并保存,直到民事法院作出最终裁决;如果被告不遵守,民事法院将判处高额处罚金并签发针对被告的逮捕令。
When temporary injunction is serviced, defendant must observe right away. If temporary injunction includes a seizure order, plaintiff will detain products and preserve it until civil court makes final decision. If defendant doesn’t observe, civil court will sentence to fines of a large amount and issue a warrant against defendant.
如果产品没有侵权,对临时禁令有这些应对措施:提起对临时禁令的抗辩;申请废除禁令;申请进入主要诉讼程序;要求临时禁令申请人赔偿损失。如果产品侵权,可对案件价值提出抗辩;与权利人沟通谈判,签署和解协议以彻底了结案件,避免进一步的法律费用。
If the product proves not to infringe other’s IPR, there are following answering measures against temporary injunction: file a plea against temporary injunction, apply to abrogate injunction, apply to enter into main litigation procedures, request compensation of loss from applier of temporary injunction. If the product infringes other’s IPR, the product owner may file a plea against case value, communicate with owner of IPR and sign the settlement in order to completely file the case and avoid further legal expenditure.
3、 海关扣押
Customs seizure
经权利人申请,海关发现涉嫌侵权产品入境,有权扣押保全展品。扣押既可在边境,也可在展览会场。产品扣押后,货主可以提出抗辩;如果没有侵权,则申请人要赔偿损失;如果确实侵权,货主可以同意海关销毁产品,以避免进一步的调查程序。
Upon application of IPR owner, in case customs finds products suspected of infringing other’s IPR, it is entitled to detain and preserve exhibited products which can be conducted both on the frontier or exhibition spot. After the products are seizured, its owner can raise a plea. If there is no infringement, the applicant may claim compensation of the loss. If product definitely infringes other’s IPR, product owner may consent with customs to destroy products by melting or burning in order to avoid further investigation procedures.
4、 刑事程序
Criminal procedure
在德国法律下,任何故意侵犯被授予的德国专利和欧洲专利的德国部分都构成刑事犯罪,专利权利人可以向警方和检查官提起刑事诉讼。在紧急情况下,警方可以自行采取行动,或在获得刑事法官的搜查令后开始行动,扣押物品,查封展台。在这种情况下,可以事先告诉警察官和刑事法官争议将涉及复杂技术问题,而且他们不能判定侵权和专利的有效性。如果认为没有侵权,可向法院提出抗辩,申请免予起诉。切不可置之不理,否则产品将丧失德国市场。
Under German laws and regulations, any act of intentionally infringing German and European granted patent will constitute criminal offense that IPR owner may lodge criminal lawsuit towards police station and prosecutor. Under emergency circumstances, police may take action by themselves, or start action after acquiring search warrant from criminal judge to seizure goods and seal up exhibition booth. Under such circumstances, you may tell policeman and criminal judge that as it will involve complicated technical issue, they cannot judge infringement and the effectiveness of patent. If one thinks there is no infringement, he can raise a plea to court and apply for immunity from suit, but he cannot ignore, otherwise, he may lose Germany market.
一旦在欧盟其中一国涉嫌侵权,强制措施将同样适用于欧盟各国。
Once your product constitutes a suspect of infringement act in any of EU countries, compulsory measures will be adapted to all other EU countries similarly.
随着会展经济的蓬勃发展,展览会上知识产权问题也日益凸显,给展会市场带来了干扰与负面影响。知识产权侵权问题已经成为中国企业进入海外市场的首要问题之一,企业如何能保证在国外参加产品博览会能卓有成效但同时又能有效地避免法律风险呢?应从以下三个方面进行把握。
With the development of exhibition economy, IPR issue on the exhibition becomes highlighted increasingly which brings disturbance and negative effect on exhibition market. IPR infringement issue has become primary problem for Chinese enterprise entering into overseas market. How can enterprise guarantee the high effectiveness of product exhibition at abroad and simultaneously effectively avoid legal risks? Enterprise shall proceed from three points as follows:
一、参展前的充分准备
Full preparation before exhibition
(一) 先行了解
Investigation beforehand
为了避免在国际展会上遇到知识产权纠纷,中国企业非常有必要了解和熟悉参展国相关的知识产权法律,在参展前进行必要的法律咨询,甚至聘请这方面的专业律师对所在国有关的知识产权问题提供律师建议。展览公司应当有义务提供必要咨询服务,参展商还以向参展国的法律咨询机构或律师咨询,还可以利用互联网进行检索,了解参展国的知识产权保护法律体系和知识产权法的执法机构和执法程序,尽可能降低知识产权纠纷,减少损失。

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